The Mines

A large stone quarry and mining system existed near Lucania. These mines were often used as the ultimate punishment for condemned slaves and gladiators that proved themselves useless. Slaves in the mines were treated as more disposable than slaves or servants in the Roman cities, and their life expectancy was considerably lower, usually three months had the slaves been fortunate enough. These slaves either died from starvation, thirst, or they were sometimes crucified to present an example to the other condemned slaves. Many Romans such as Lentulus Batiatus searched the mines looking for appealing slaves to purchase as their house slaves or to train as gladiators.
Later during the Third Servile War, Spartacus and his rebels attacked the mines, and 10,000 slaves were freed, growing their numbers to thousands.